Time data scientists spend on finding & cleaning data.
Most data is:
>65K datasets, >38B facts
We need to significantly lower the cost of storing and disseminating structured data.
Example: boiling water in LOV
Jim Hendler, ESWC 2016
The empirical (i.e., non-analytic) analysis of meaning.
(We still use model theory and other formalisms in order to describe the outcomes of our analyses, but we do not use formalisms in order to prescribe what a given expressions ought to mean.)
Some aspects of meaning cannot be captured by formal meaning, but we still want to study them.
(We must observe these non-formal aspects of meaning empirically.)
id:store def:sells id:tent. id:tent def:costs "¥150,000". id:tent rdf:type id:Product.
fy:aHup pe:ko9sap_ fy:jufn12. fy:jufn12 pe:oao9_ "Ufou". fy:jufn12 rdf:type fyufnt:tmffqt.
Graphs G₁ and G₂ are true in the same models.
In the early days of the Semantic Web (2003) the non-formal aspects of meaning were actively discussed: link.
“An RDF graph may contain "defining information" that is opaque to logical reasoners. This information may be used by human interpreters of RDF information.”
“Human publishers of RDF content commit themselves to the mechanically-inferred social obligations.”
“The meaning of an RDF document includes the social meaning, the formal meaning, and the social meaning of the formal entailments.”
Some aspects of meaning could (theoretically) have been captured by formal meaning, but are observed to not be captured as such in common practice.
(We must observe what ‘common practice’ is empirically.)
Like other empirical research fields, Empirical Semantics requires a serious investment in infrastructure.
LOD Observatories are needed to observe and analyse the large-scale use of Knowledge Graphs in practice.
Network structure visually corresponds to aspects of meaning.
<div vocab="http://schema.org/" typeof="Movie"> <h1 property="name">Avatar</h1> <div property="director" typeof="Person"> Director: <span property="name">James Cameron</span> (born <time property="birthDate" datetime="1954-08-16">August 16, 1954</time>) </div> <span property="genre">Science fiction</span> <a href="../movies/avatar-theatrical-trailer.html" property="trailer">Trailer</a> </div>